What is osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease or age-related arthritis, is the most common type of arthritis. Osteoarthritis is more likely to develop as people age. The changes in osteoarthritis usually occur slowly over many years, though there are occasional exceptions. Inflammation and injury to the joint cause a breaking down of cartilage tissues, resulting in pain, swelling, and deformity of the joint.ReferenceCleveland clinic

What are the types of Osteoarthritis?

We have seven types of Osteoarthritis based on the location or part of the body affected.The following are the body parts based type of Osteoarthritis

Foot and Ankle Osteoarthritis

Foot and ankle osteoarthritis

Feet have a complex structure consisting of 26 bones, more than 30 small joints (where bones meet) and many muscles, tendons, ligaments and nerves. Problems in the feet and ankles are often, but not always, associated with arthritis.Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the foot.
As people get older, osteoarthritis can be linked to changes in the shape of feet, which may cause pain.Osteoarthritis often affects the big toe joint. The joint will become stiffer and the range of movement will be reduced. Often the bones become larger and knobbly due to an overgrowth of new bone.Recent findings suggest that osteoarthritis is more common in the arch area of the foot than previously thought. Osteoarthritis can also develop in the ankle, but this is usually following a previous injury or damage to the joint from long-standing inflammatory arthritis.

Reference
Versus Arthritis

Knee Osteoarthritis

Knee osteoarthritis

The knee is the largest and strongest joint in your body.Osteoarthritis of the knee is one of the most commonly affected joints.Osteoarthritis of the knee involves two primary processes:

  • The cartilage in the joints breaks down
  • Abnormal bony growths develop, called osteophytes or bone spurs.

The osteoarthritic process is gradual, with symptoms that may come and go and eventually worsen over a number of years.One of the primary symptoms of persons with knee osteoarthritis is pain. This pain may follow a pattern, for example:

  • Knee pain that comes and goes, possibly with a chronic low level of pain, punctuated by intermittent more intense flare-ups;
  • Pain with certain activities, such as bending, kneeling, squatting, or stair climbing;
  • Knee pain and stiffness that is worse after prolonged inactivity or rest, such as getting out of bed in the morning.

There are several risk factors that make one more likely to develop the condition. The primary risk factors are advanced age (over age 45), prior knee injury, and excess weight.Reference
Versus Arthritis.
Arthritis-Health
AAOS

Spinal Osteoarthritis (Spondylosis)

Spinal osteoarthritis

Spinal arthritis, also known as Spondylosis, means inflammation of the spinal facet joints.As we grow older, the joints in our bodies can wear out through use (and especially though overuse)Up to 80% of people experience low back pain at some time (especially people over the age of 50).Osteoarthritis, a common cause of low back pain, involves breakdown of cartilage (tissue covering the joint surfaces at the ends of bones).Symptoms consist of gradually increasing pain and stiffness. Initially, pain and stiffness occur after periods of inactivity. Later, pain is worse with physical activity and prolonged sitting.Osteoarthritis of the spine is a degenerative disease. It cannot be reversed, but treatment can slow down its progression, help control pain, and restore some or all of normal function.Reference
Spine-Health
PPM
JAMA
Arthritis-Health

Shoulder Osteoarthritis

Shoulder osteoarthritis

Your shoulder has three bones that come together to create two separate joints.

  • The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is formed where your collarbone (clavicle) meets the bony tip of your shoulder blade (acromion).
  • The glenohumeral joint forms where the head of your upper arm bone (humerus) fits into your shoulder blade (scapula).

In shoulder osteoarthritis (OA) – also called degenerative joint disease – your cartilage and other joint tissues gradually break down. Friction in the joint increases, pain increases, and you slowly lose mobility and function.Shoulder OA is not as common as OA of the hip or knee, but it is estimated that nearly 1 in 3 people over the age of 60 have shoulder OA to some degree. OA is more common in the AC joint than the glenohumeral joint.Reference
Arthritis Foundation

Hand Osteoarthritis

Hand osteoarthritis

About half of all women and one-quarter of all men will experience the stiffness and pain of hand OA by the time they are 85 years old.Also known as “wear and tear” arthritis, OA causes the smooth, protective cartilage on the ends of your bones to break down and wear away. Over time bones rub together, causing pain. The 29 bones of your hands and wrists come together to form many small joints that can be affected by OA.Along with cartilage loss, OA also causes bone spurs to form. Bone spurs in and around the joints increase your stiffness and pain. With worsening OA, daily activities can become difficult and your finger joints may lose their normal shape.OA most commonly affects three parts of the hand:

  • The base of the thumb, where the thumb and wrist join (the trapeziometacarpal [TMC] or carpometacarpal [CMC] joint)
  • The joint closest to the fingertip (the distal interphalangeal [DIP] joint)
  • The middle joint of a finger (the proximal interphalangeal [PIP] joint

Reference
ASSH
Arthritis Foundation

Neck Osteoarthritis

Neck Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the neck affects the bones at the top of the spine. It is also
called cervical spondylosis.OA of the neck occurs when the springy cushioning (cartilage discs) between the
bones in the neck becomes thinner and the bones which link the spinal bones (facet
joints) swell and thicken, hence, their ability to absorb shock is lost, increasing the risk of symptoms.Swollen neck joints, called facet joints, can press or pinch nearby nerve roots or the spinal cord itself, resulting in tingling or “pins and needles” in the extremities and sometimes even pain in the limbs.In some cases, there may be a loss of feeling and coordination. Some people may have difficulty walking.This happens as we get older — 85 per cent of people over the age of 60 will have changes on an X-ray. However, only some people experience symptoms from these changes.The cause of OA of the neck is not known, but a person may be more prone to
developing it as they get older or if they have sustained an injury, such as a fracture.Some people hear a popping or clicking sound as they move their head. This sound
may come from two roughened bony surfaces coming into contact with one another or tendons tightening. This symptom can be worrying, but it is not a sign that anything is seriously wrong.The pain from OA of the neck may affect other parts of your body.Reference
Arthritis Care
Medical News Today
NHS

Hip Osteoarthritis

Hip Osteoarthritis

The hip joint consists of the ball-shaped end of the thigh bone (femoral head) which fits into the hip socket (acetabular socket). The inside of this ball-and-socket joint is lined with smooth cartilage to help the joint move easily. If this smooth cartilage wears away, the remaining rough surfaces of the ball-and-socket grind against each other, causing pain. Over time, osteoarthritis can degenerate or permanently damage the joint.The hip is the second most commonly affected joint (after the knee)Osteoarthritis of the hip is a serious condition.Hip osteoarthritis is almost twice as common in women than in menOsteoarthritis of the hip results in pain, stiffness, and joint deformity. The symptoms of osteoarthritis can affect one’s ability to walk, work, and enjoy life.Reference
The BMJ
UW OSM
WUOIn summary, osteoarthritis affects all parts of our body that have (even an inkling) joints – the joining of bones in the body.As we age, the likelihood and tendency of becoming osteoarthritic in any of these joints is high – most especially the joints that were overused when we were younger. Most of these osteoarthritis types can be prevented and managed to the point of no pain and slowing down the rate of degeneration of the joints, but there is no cure. The reason for no cure is that, as we age, our joints and bones naturally become weaker but don’t decline at a very fast rate (as seen in osteoarthritis patients).Love ❤️Seun Fasina 😊

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